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Antique Khamseh rug,
probably Inallu (Aynallu, Inalu, Inanlu) tribe
Age: c 1890
Size (ft): 4'8"x6'1"
Structure: wool pile, brown and ivory wool warps twisted and dark brownish red wool wefts.
Knots: Gördes (Turkish, symmetrical)
Condition: Good pile. Original selvedge. Minor damages to the lower and upper kilim end due to age. Overall well preserved.
Notes: Acquired from a private collection in Germany. The rug was woven in the late 19th century in the south east of Shiraz, probably by Inallu tribe of the Khamseh confederation. Khamseh was consisted of mainly Turkic tribes (Inallu, Baharlu and Nafar) of Shiraz (Fars) province, and partly Arabs of mixed origin. Basseri, which is also one of the Khamseh tribes are descended from Arabic, Persian and Turkish.
Inallu (Aynallu, Ainalu, Inalu, Inanlu) is a tribe of Oghuz Turkic origin who settled in Azerbaijan and Iran in Seljuk Period. In Safavid Period, they were a part of powerful Afshar tribe. Inallu tribe backed the Safavids, in the beginning as Qizilbash/Qyzylbash and later as a part of Shahsevan Conferederation. (R. Tapper, “Shahsevan,” pp. 339-40).
Today Inallu tribe inhabits Azerbaijan, Central Iran and Fars provinces. According to Minorsky, the name of this tribe was derived from the Turkic title "inal", or "yinal". He suggested that the original Inallu might have constituted the family and retinue of Ibrahim Inal, the half-brother of the Seljuq ruler Toghrul. When the tribe was later incorporated into the Shahsevan tribal confederacy, its name was changed to Imanlu, meaning “Those of the faith,” and Inanlu, from the Turkish verb "inan" - “to believe”
First group of Inallu forms one of the chief clans of the Afshar tribe of Urmia (Nikitine, “Les Afshars d’Urumiyeh,” pp. 105-08). Shah ʿAbbas I gave was the Urmia region to Kalb-e ʿAli Khan Imanlu as a fief and he was followed by a series of other Inallu governors (Nikitine, op. cit., pp. 73, 105, 106).
The second goup is a part of the Shahsevan tribe of northeastern Azerbaijan (Oberling, The Turkic Peoples, pp. 6, 13, 26).
A third group of Inallu belongs to the Shahsevans of Central Iran. According to H. Field, these Inallus were forced to move into the area from northeastern Azerbaijan by Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar (r.1779-97) (Contributions, p. 171). Field estimated their number at from 5,000 to 6,000 families (ibid.) and Kayhan at 10,000 families (Joghrafia II, p. 112). Their winter quarters are near Sava; their summer quarters are near Qazvin. Many have settled down in villages in the bakshes of Zarand and Abyak (Razmara, Farhang I, pp. 72, 194, 234).
A fourth group of Inallu inhabits southeastern Fars Province. These Inallus/Inalu almost certainly came to Fars by way of central Iran. When it was still nomadic, the Inallu tribe of Fars had its winter quarters in the boluks of Kafr, Darab, and Fasa, and its summer quarters in the boluks of Ramjerd and Marvdasht (cf. Fasaʾi, p. 309). Until 1860, Inallus were living together with Qashqai in this area. In 1861-62, when the Khamsa tribal confederacy was formed to counterbalance the growing influence of the Qashqaʾi tribal confederacy, the Inallu tribe was one of the five tribes selected for that purpose. It thereby fell under the domination of the wealthy Qawam family of Shiraz, which had been placed in charge of the new confederacy. The Inallu of Fars were accomplished raiders and banditti. But in 1876 they were severely punished by Moʿtamed-al-dawla Farhad Mirza, the governor general of Fars, and were forced to become sedentary (Fasaʾi, pp. 309-10; G. Demorgny, “Les réformes,” p. 102). Before World War I, Demorgny estimated their number at 5,000 families (op. cit., p. 102), and A. T. Wilson at 4,000 families (Report, p. 48). Today, these Inallu people inhabit several villages on the open country east of Fasa (Razmara, Farhang VII, pp. 59, 113, 159, 171).
L. W. Adamec, ed., Historical Gazetteer of Iran I: Tehran and Northwestern Iran, Graz, 1976, pp. 589-91.
G. Demorgny, “Les réformes administratives en Perse: Les tribus du Fars,” Revue du monde musulman 22, 1913, pp. 85-150.
H. Field, Contributions to the Anthropology of Iran, Chicago, 1939.
L. S. Fortescue, Military Report on Tehran and Adjacent Provinces of North-Western Persia, Calcutta, 1922.
M. S. Ivanov, Plemena Farsa, Moscow, 1961.
J. M. Jouannin’s list of the tribes of Iran, in A. Dupré, Voyage en Perse, Paris, 1819, II, pp. 456-68.
T. Kowalski, “Sir Aurel Stein’s Sprachaufzeichnungen im Äḭnallu-Dialekt aus Südpersien,” Polska Akademia Umietjetności 29, 1937.
B. V. Miller, “Kochevye plemena Farsistana,” Vostochnyĭ Sbornik 2, 1916, pp. 200-23.
V. Minorsky, “Äḭnallu/Inallu,” Rocznik Orientalistyczny 17, 1953, pp. 1-11.
B. Nikitine, “Les Afshars d’Urumiyeh,” JA, January-March, 1929, pp. 67-123.
P. Oberling, The Turkic Peoples of Azerbayjan, American Council of Learned Societies, 1964. R. Tapper, “Shahsevan in Safavid Persia,” BSOAS 37/2, 1974, pp. 321-54.
A. G. Tumansky, “Ot Kaspiĭskogo morya k Hormuzdskomu prolivu i obratno,” Sbornik Materialov po Azii 65, 1986, pp. 76-81.
A. T. Wilson, Report on Fars, Simla, 1916.
Design: Five rows of four large Boteh motifs on each row, alternately aligned to the right and left, form a pattern repeat on the dark blue background. Remarkably beautiful tones of yellow, blue, maroon and green. The large boteh motives are accompanied with tiny botehs and small stylized trees. Elegant red-ground main border with a Babylonian star motif.
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A similar example published in Hali Magazine no:122.
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